1、It is difficult to assess the importance of the decision.
2、You must try to wipe out the memory of these horrible events.
3、As the headmaster made a long speech，the ceremony was prolonged by ten minutes.
4、When a man knows that he will be put into prison if he uses a potentially deadly object to rob or do harm to another person，he will think twice about it.
5、Because of adverse weather conditions，The travelers stopped to camp.
6、There are some things in the class the teachers will not put up with.
7、Her behavior is extremely childish.
8、Courageous people think quickly and act without hesitation.
9、A good employer gives hints to his or her employees without interfering with thei r creativity.
10、He is charming;nevertheless，I don’t quite trust him.
11、Hundreds of buildings were wrecked by the earthquake.
12、Academic records cannot be duplicated.
13、We have ample money for the journey.
14、The failure is not horrible because it helps to accumulate useful experiences.
15、The union representative put across her argument very effectively.
The World Health Organization (WHO) says as many as 10 million persons worldwide may have the virus that causes AIDS(艾滋病). Experts believe about 350 thousand persons have the disease. And one million more may get it in the next five years. In the United States, about 50,000 persons have died with AIDS. The country's top medical official says more than 90 percent of all Americans who had the AIDS virus five years ago are dead.
There is no cure for AIDS and no vaccine(疫苗) to prevent it. However, researchers know much more about AIDS than they did just a few years ago. We now know that AIDS is caused by a virus. The virus invades healthy cells, including white blood cells that are part of our defense system against disease. It takes control of the healthy cell's genetic(基因的) material and forces the cell to make a copy of the virus. The cell then dies. And the viral particles move on to invade and kill healthier cells.
The AIDS virus is carried in a person's body fluids(液体). The virus can be passed sexually or by sharing instruments used to take intravenous(进入静脉的) drugs. It also can be passed in blood products or from a pregnant woman with AIDS to her developing baby.
Many stories about the spread of AIDS are false. You cannot get AIDS by working or attending school with someone who has the disease. You can not get it by touching drinking glasses or other objects used by such persons. Experts say no one has gotten AIDS by living with, caring for or touching an AIDS patient.
16 According to the WHO, there are now 10 million AIDS patients in the world.
A Right B Wrong C Not mentioned
17 America has the largest number of AIDS patients in the world.
A Right B Wrong C Not mentioned
18 The cause of AIDS remains a mystery to researchers.
A Right B Wrong C Not mentioned
19 AIDS patients today cannot be cured yet.
A Right B Wrong C Not mentioned
20 A pregnant woman with AIDS cannot pass the virus to her developing baby.
A Right B Wrong C Not mentioned
21 It is unlikely that the Aids virus will be passed through handshaking.
A Right B Wrong C Not mentioned
22 Men are more easily infected with AIDS than women.
A Right B Wrong C Not mentioned
Old Man Myths and Realities
1 When does a middle-aged man become an old man? Officially, of course, it's when we reach retirement age. But, as we all know, this is a fairly blunt (生硬的) method of decision making. As life expectancy (预期寿命) increases, retirement planning needs to be changed. This is because being an old man today is very different from what it was a generation or so ago.
2 Sixty-five is the new middle-aged man. These days people are talking about the young-old, that is ages 70-75, and those over 75 as the old-old. The young-old frequently continue in good health and maintain strong links with friends and family. The old-old have a much higher chance of poor health and social isolation.
3 Although men are living longer, there are still more old women than old men. This fact alone should arouse interest as to why. Relatively little is actually known about why this is the case or about the experiences of the old man. Sure, we are aware that the old man experiences anxiety, financial problems, loneliness, etc., but that's really about all we know.
4 It is usually believed that the old man often complains about their health. In fact, most rate their health as good even though most are diagnosed with at least one chronic illness. The physical health of the old man is strongly affected by their health behavior when they were younger.
1 Paragraph 1_________.
2 Paragraph 2_________.
3 Paragraph 3_________.
4 Paragraph 4_________.
A New definitions of the old man
B Changing concept of the old man
C Health of the old man
D Happy old man and sad old man
E Limited knowledge of the old man's experiences
F Contempt for the old man
5 Nowadays men generally live longer than_________.
6 A man in his mid-60s is now regarded as_________.
7 More research should be done on the experiences of_________.
8 Most old men consider themselves to be_________.
A in good health
B in the past
C in the wrong
D the old man
E a middle-aged man
F a young man
Since earliest days, humans have used some kinds of medicines. We know this because humans have survived. Ancient treatments for injury and disease were successful enough to keep humans from dying out completely.
They were successful long before the time of modern medicine. Before the time of doctors with white coats and shiny (发亮的) instruments. Before the time of big hospitals with strange and wonderful equipment.
Many parts of the world still do not have university-educated doctors. Nor do they have expensive hospitals. Yet injuries are treated. And diseases are often cured. How? By ancient methods. By medicines that might seem mysterious, even magical (有魔力的). Traditional medicines are neither mysterious nor magical, however.
Through the centuries, tribal (部落的) medicine men experimented with plants. They found many useful chemicals in the plants. And scientists believe many of these traditional medicines may provide the cure for some of today's most serious diseases.
Experts say almost 80% of the people in the world use plants for health care. These natural medicines are used not just because people have no other form of treatment. They are used because people trust them. In developed areas, few people think about the source of the medicines they buy in a store. Yet many widely-used medicines are from ancient sources, especially plants. Some experts say more than 25% of modern medicines come, in one way or another, from nature.
Scientists have long known that nature is really a chemical factory. All living things contain chemicals that help them survive. So scientists' interest in traditional medicine is not new. But it has become an urgent concern. This is because the earth's supply of natural medicines may be dropping rapidly.
1 The passage indicates that ancient treatments for injury and disease were
A much more successful than modem ones.
B successful enough for humans to survive.
C successful in all cases.
D of little help to humans.
2 Which of the following statements is NOT true?
A Modern medicines are now available all over the world.
B Many big and modem hospitals are expensive.
C Traditional medicines are neither mysterious nor magical.
D Humans have used some kinds of medicines since earliest days.
3 It is believed by scientists that traditional medicines
A can cure all kinds of diseases.
B may cure some of today's most serious diseases
C are no longer useful for modem men.
D are too cheap to be useful.
4 What do the majority of the people in the world use for health care?
A Strange and wonderful equipment.
B Factory-produced chemicals.
C Modern medicines.
5 It can be seen from the passage that the earth's supply of natural medicines
A may never be exhausted.
B may be dropping rapidly.
C is surprisingly big.
D is as rich as ever.
Stan Field knows what age can do to a person's memory, and he's not taking any chances with his. He chooses his food carefully and gets plenty of exercise. He also avoids stress, coca cola and cigarette smoke. What's more, at breakfast each morning, the 69-year-old chemical engineer swallows a plateful of pills in the hope of boosting his brain power.
Michelle Arnove is less than half Field's age, but no less concerned about her
memory. While working round the clock to finish a degree in film studies, the 33-year-old New Yorker had the alarming sensation that she had stopped retaining anything. "I couldn't even remember names," she says. "1 thought, 'Oh no, I'm over 30. It's all downhill from here'." Besides loading up on supplements, Arnove signed up for a memory-enhancing course at New York's Mount Siani Medical Center. And when she got there, she found herself surrounded by people who were just as worried as she was.
For millions of Americans, and especially for baby boomers (生育高峰期出生的人), the demands of the Information Age conflict with a sense of declining physical power. "When boomers were in their 30s and 40s, they launched the fitness boom," says Cynthia Green, the psychologist who teaches Mount Sinai's memory class. "Now we have the mental-fitness boom. Memory is the boomers' new life-crisis issue." And of course a major marketing opportunity. The demand for books and seminars has never been greater, says Jack Lannom, a Iongtime memory trainer whose weekly TV show,
"Mind Unlimited," goes out to 33 million homes on the Christian Network. Anxious consumers are rushing to buy do-it-yourself programs and supplement makers are trying to sell everything but sawdust (木屑) as a brain booster.
But before you get out your checkbook, a few questions are in order. Does everyday forgetfulness signal declining brain function? Is "megamemory" (超强记忆) a realistic goal for normal people? And if you could have a perfect memory, would you really want it? Until recently, no one could address those issues with much authority, but our knowledge of memory is exploding. New techniques are revealing how different parts of the brain interact to preserve meaningful experiences. Biologists are trying to understand the underlying (潜在的) chemical processes and neuroscientists (神经系统科学家) are discovering how age, stress ,and other factors can disrupt them. No one is close to finding the secret to perfect recall, but as you'll see, that may be just as well.
6 What does Stan Field take at breakfast?
A Food only.
B Food and pills.
D A plateful of pills only.
7 What is the meaning of "working round the clock"?
A Repairing clocks.
B Making clocks.
C Working with a clock nearby.
D Working day and night.
8 Many baby-boomers living in the Information Age feel that
A their financial status is declining.
B their political influence is declining.
C their physical power is declining.
D their will power is declining.
9 Which of the following does NOT indicate people's enhanced awareness of the importance of memory?
A More demand for books on memory.
B More demand for seminars on memory.
C More demand for memory-enhancing supplements.
D More demand for coca cola and cigarettes.
10 According to the writer， the secret to perfect memory
A has been found.
B will never be found.
C was found a long time ago.
D is not in sight yet.
My mother knew how to knit (编织), but she never taught me. She assumed, as did many women of her generation, that knitting was no longer a skill worth passing down from mother to daughter. A combination of feminism (女权主义) and consumerism (消费主义) made many women feel that such homely accomplishments were now out of date. My Grandmother still knitted, though, and every Christmas she made a pair of socks for my brother and me, of red wool. They were the ones we wore under our ice skates (冰鞋), when it was really important to have warm feet.
Knitting is a nervous habit that happens to be productive. It helped me quit smoking by giving my hands something else to do. It is wonderful for depression because no matter what else happens, you are creating something beautiful. Time spent in front of the television or just sitting is no longer time wasted.
I love breathing life into the patterns. It's true magic, finding a neglected, dog-eared old book with the perfect snowflake design, buying the same Germantown wool my grandmother used, in the exact blue to match my daughter's eyes; taking it on the train with me every day for two months, working enthusiastically to get it done by Christmas, staying up late after the stockings are filled to sew in the sleeves and weave in the ends.
Knitting has taught me patience. I know that if I just keep going, even if it takes months, there will be a reward. When I make a mistake, I know that anger will not fix it, that I just have to go back and take out the stitches (针脚) between and start over again.
People often ask if I would do it for money, and the answer is always a definite no. In the first place, you could not pay me enough for the hours I put into a sweater. But more important, this is an activity I keep separate from such considerations. I knit to cover my children and other people I love in warmth and color. I knit to give them something earthly that money could never buy.
Knitting gives my life an alternative rhythm to the daily deadline. By day I can write about Northern Ireland or the New York City Police Department and get paid for it, but on the train home, surrounded by people with laptops, I stage my little rebellion: I take out my old knitting bag and join the centuries of women who have knitted for love.
11 Why did many women feel that knitting was out of date?
A Because their mothers didn't teach them.
B Because they were influenced by feminism and consumerism
C Because they were feminists.
D Because they were consumerists.
12 The author wore the red socks her grandmother had knitted for her
A when she went to school.
B when she went sightseeing.
C when she celebrated Christmas.
D when she went skating.
13 The word "quit" in Paragraph 2 is closest in meaning to
A "give up".
B "speed up".
C "slow down".
D "build up".
14 According to the passage， which of the following statements about knitting is NOT true?
A Knitting helps one get rid of bad habits.
B Knitting helps one get free from a bad mood.
C Knitting requires patience.
D Knitting is a profit-making business.
15 Which of the following is NOT the writer's purpose of knitting?
A To save money.
B To make full use of her leisure time.
C To enrich her life.
D To show her love for the family.
From early times man has used garlic (大蒜). The Bible speaks of it. The Israelites (古以色列人) were once far from home. They cried out to Moses, their leader, for the foods they loved: leeks (韭菜), onions, and garlic. The Romans, like the Israelites, loved to eat garlic. And they hung bags of garlic around their necks. _____(1) They also thought it would keep them from getting sick.
A similar idea is still held. Many people take garlic thinking it will prevent or cure disease. Most doctors say it does no such thing. _____(2) Its smell may force people to stay far apart. At least then they can't pass germs on to each other. _____(3) What if you're in a play, for instance? Actors have been known to forget their lines because they couldn't stand the garlic smell on a fellow actor's breath. Some have even made up new lines and actions that kept them far away from the one who had eaten garlic.
Through the years man has tried to cope with the smell of garlic. _____(4) We now know why. It's been found that the oils of the garlic do not stick to the teeth, Garlic tongue, or gums (齿龈). They go into the lungs instead. From there they are breathed out. They pass out through the skin too.
Strange as it seems, food may have a great deal of garlic in it without smelling or tasting strong. It all depends on how it is cooked. French cooks make a good soup with whole cloves (瓣) of garlic. They use more than thirty cloves in one bowl of soup. But they take care not to crush them. And they cook them whole. _____(5) And as the cloves cook they change in some strange way. The soup turns out to be delicious. It's not strong at all.
A But no medicine, mouthwash, chewing gum, or toothpaste seems to help much
B As a result, the strong oils stay in the cloves.
C They say it may help in one way, though.
D Many people eat garlic.
E But keeping your distance can be hard at times.
F They hoped it would keep away the evil eye.
Street sellers, particularly in developing countries, supply large amounts of food _____(1) people on low incomes. This sector (部门) also employs some 6-25% of the work force, mainly women, in developing countries, and provides markets for agricultural and other produce. In many countries, _____(2), the authorities are not willing to recognize it as a formal sector of the food _____(3) system; they may ignore it in food control programs or even try to put an end to _____(4).
There are two possible contaminants (污染物): pathogenic (病原) micro-organisms (微生物) _____(5) harmful chemicals. As _____(6) as micro-organisms are concerned, there is apparently no convincing evidence that street foods are more involved in the transmission of infection than foods obtained in, e.g. hotels. Studies in Egypt and elsewhere have found street foods to compare not unfavorably with hotel _____(7) in respect of contamination with micro-organisms - some street foods were found to be contaminated with pathogens (病原菌), but so were foods from four, and five-star _____(8) in the same area.
Harmful chemicals have been found in street foods, and food exposed for sale on roadsides, may become _____(9) by lead from vehicle exhausts.
Health dangers may arise from: purchase of raw materials of _____(10) quality; improper storage, processing, and cooking, leading _____(11) reuse of water; limited piped drinking-water; lack of refrigeration (冷藏); unsatisfactory waste-disposal facilities; and personal cleanliness.
The authorities should _____(12) into account the potentials of different categories of food for transmitting disease, and should set appropriate standards of control for the different categories - sellers of bottled drinks require less control than those of food. Dry foods, dried grains, and sugared foods are _____(13) likely to transmit disease than cooked rice, low-acid milk, egg, and meat products. _____(14), foods which are thoroughly cooked and eaten at _____(15) are safer than precooked food kept at high temperatures for several hours.
1 A for B on C by D at
2 A but B however C besides D moreover
3 A choice B processing C supply D production
4 A them B those C him D it
5 A and B or C but D yet
6 A soon B far C much D many
7 A services B kitchens C hygiene D foods
8 A hotels B houses C buildings D generals
9 A supported B enriched C contaminated D washed
10 A heavy B clear C high D poor
11 A to B about C from D around
12 A use B think C take D work
13 A highly B never C not D less
14 A Certainly B Interestingly C Surprisingly D Similarly
15 A once B twice C call D work
1-15 ABDDD ABCCA BDDCB
16. B 17. C 18. B 19. A 20. B 21. A 22. C
23. B 24. A 25. E 26. C 27. B
28. E 29. D 30. A
31. B 32. A 33. B 34. D 35. B
36. B 37. D 38. C 39. D 40. D
41. B 42. D 43. A 44. D 45.A
46. F 47. C 48. E 49. A 50. B
51. A 52. B 53. C 54. D 55. A
56. B 57. D 58. A 59. C 60. D
61. A 62. C 63. D 64. D 65. A