不丹:幸福胜过财富 1)Bhutan-Where Happiness 2)Outranks Wealth
What is happines really? In conventional development theory, it equals money and prosperity, as measured by 3)GNP (Gross National Product). But Bhutan, the fously remote and beautiful Buddhist kingdom in the Himalaya has been trying out a different concept. 4)Espoused by the country’s king, Jigme Singye Wangchuck, its government has been using a stanrd called GNH, or Gross National Happiness. It has 5)underpinned the country’s approach to change and development.
After centuries of self-imposed isolation, in 1961, Bhutan opened its doors to the world. The Bhutanese quickly learnt that in the pursuit of economic prosperity, many countries had lost their cultural identitie as well as their spirituality, and 6)compromised their environments. From a Buddhist perspective the burst of consumer-driven, economic growth, and consequently the plosion of affluence in industrialized nation had resulted in widespread spiritual poverty. It was a clear message to the Bhutanese that economic growth alone did not bring contentment.
However, the government also knew that change was inevitable. So Bhutan had to come up with a different approach to development—something that would monitor and regulate the nature and pace of change without compromising the essence of its citizens’ well-being. Thu GNH was born. GNH, according to the Center of Bhutan Studies in the capital, Thimphu, is not against change. It 7)propounds development by balancing economic development, preservation of the environment, and religious-cultural heritage. The underlying message is that the country should not sacrifice elements important for people’s happiness to gain material development. In short, GNH 8)takes into account not just the flow of money, but also access to healthcare, free time with fily, conservation of natural resource and other non-economic factors.
In 1998, Bhutan’s Prime Minister, Jigmi Thinley, identified the “Four Pillars” of GNH, which toy form the overall guiding principle for development in Bhutan. The first is sustainable and equitable socio-economic development. This stresses the improvement of physical, intellectual, social, and economic health through services such as health, education, trade and commerce, road and bridge construction, employment, urban development, and housing. As a result, education and health were provided free of cost to all Bhutanese even though the country was still poor. The second pillar is conservation of the environment. Only 16% of Bhutan’s land is 9)arable, so there is pressure to 10)fell trees and sell timber. But the law requires that the proportion of tree cover must not be less than 65%. At present about 72% of Bhutan is forest. The hydropower projects—main drivers of the country’s economy—are mostly “run-of-the-river” schemes which 11)pose far less impact on the environment, and far less human displacement, than would huge ds. The third pillar is preservation and promotion of culture. The Bhutanese government views this as a crucial strategy to preserve the country’s sovereignty. It has implemented policies that conserve and promote Bhutanese religion, language and literature, art and architecture, performing art national dres traditional 12)etiquette, and sports and recreation. For instance, the government requires all Bhutanese to wear traditional dress to office temple and official 13)functions. And the last pillar is good governance. The Bhutanese believe that good governance is vital for the happiness of the people.